10 Safety Tips for Motorcyclists

Motorcycles are quite common in Sri Lanka. In fact, as of October 2014, the Sunday Times reported that they nearly 20,000 new motorcycles were registered between January and October 2014 . However, they are far more susceptible to get involved in vehicle accidents. On that note, we’d like to provide 10 safety tips for all you motorcycle drivers.

1. Wear a helmet: As we have mentioned earlier, not wearing a helmet is pretty dangerous.  Although the situation is still iffy, the court of appeal has allowed individuals to wear helmets until July 2nd.

2. Watch your speed: Don’t speed. Not only is it against the law, the consequences can be far more deadly for a motorcyclist. Travel at a moderate pace, so that you can stop when you need to and always remember to go slow when turning your vehicle.

oncoming traffic
Watch out for potential accidents

3. Wear bright clothing: If you can afford to invest in reflective material, go for it. Otherwise, wear bright coloured clothes when you can. In the same way, pick out a helmet which stands out. A lot of motorists often complain that they don’t see motorbikes, so ensure that you stay visible.

TIP: Avoid wearing shorts or jeans: they provide little protection in the event of a crash. Invest in a decent rain repellent jacket which is breathable and sturdy pants.

4. Look for obstacles: Simple obstacles like potholes often are a little more than an annoyance to most motorists. However, it can be a death trap for motorcyclists. Keep an eye out for sand, slippery roads, and oil spills as they can cause you to lose control of your motorcycle.

5. Look before you move: When you’re drifting into another lane or overtaking a vehicle, ensure that you look. The want to make sure that no other vehicles are in your way which could cause you serious injury.

blind spot
Always look before you make a turn

6. Dont drive when you are tired: As we have suggested before, driving when you’re tired is very dangerous. Whenever possible, don’t drive tired because your reflex need to be much sharper when you’re travelling on a motorcycle. Speaking of reflexes, don’t have mobile phones or speakers on you when riding, as this significantly increases the chances of you getting into an accident.

7. Assume the worst, hope for the best: Experienced motorcyclists often suggest that its best to be prepared for everything. We’re not trying to make you paranoid,  but expect the car in front of you to stop immediately, turn suddenly or open a door when stationary. Anticipate potential hazards and react swiftly.

Don’t wear slippers as they don’t grip very well

8. Leave enough space between vehicles: Ensure that you leave sufficient stopping distance. Yes, while bikes need less space to stop, it’s always better to give yourself more room than to be sorry. Leave even more space when its raining.

9. Watch your passengers: As a driver, it is your responsibility to take your passenger safe and sound. Don’t give them a broken helmet, and be sure to drive extra carefully as the additional weight will limit your ability to move swiftly and manage tight corners.

10. Don’t wear slippers: Always wear shoes which give you a good grip. Yes, it may be hot and more uncomfortable. However, if you are wearing sandals or slippers, chances are that they can slip off. This is quite dangerous. Furthermore, shoes let you shift gears with little discomfort and ensures that your feet don’t get burnt.

Have any more tips to add to this list? Write them in our comments section. Until then, safe driving!

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Disclaimer: The views shared in this blog are based on the macro economic conditions & industry status quo as per the time of publishing.

How to: Avoid Potholes & Bounce back from Pothole Damage


These are probably some of the more annoying aspects of driving. We all get a little annoyed when we hit a pothole since it makes the ride uncomfortable, usually just for a moment. Here. let’s look at the best way to tackle potholes, and how to recognize pothole damage.

 How do I avoid potholes?

1. Beware of Puddles: Given the fact that we’ve have a lot of rain recently, be wary of puddles. Some puddles usually aren’t  very deep, but be careful- the last thing you want to do is to find out the hard way!

Try to avoid potholes when driving!

2. Keep your eyes on the road: As we have mentioned earlier, Sri Lanka is a country which has a number of road accidents every year. A contributing factor is texting while driving. When you’re driving, be aware of your surroundings and keep your eyes peeled for potholes.

3. Take care of your tyres and suspension: Tyres are more likely to get damaged when tyre pressure is low. In a similar way, if your shock absorbers are hit badly as a result of a pothole, your undercarriage becomes more vulnerable to damage.

car suspension
With your Car’s suspension, its whats inside that counts

4. Watch your Need for Speed– If the road you are travelling on has obstacles such as parked vehicles, narrow lanes or potholes, don’t speed. The faster you go, the greater the damage onto your car.

5. Hang on: If you can’t stop yourself from hitting a pothole, grip  your steering wheel tightly to ensure that you maintain control of your vehicle. Don’t brake, just let your car absorb the blow.

I tried everything, but I ended up hitting a pothole! Should I be worried?

It depends. If you encounter the following signs of pothole damage you ought to have your vehicle checked.

1. Alignment problems: Instead of going straight, you know you have problems if your vehicle veers too much to the left or the right. Furthermore, if one of your tyres is more worn out than the other, take a look at your vehicle’s alignment.

2. Tyre damage: If you hit a pothole hard, immediately slow down and pullover. Your tyres don’t necessarily have to blowout at the point of impact. Take a look at possible damage on the sidewalls and rims of the tyres. Severe damage could indicate that a blowout is imminent.

Check for damage to your tyres and rims

3. Bumpy  Ride: If you hit a pothole and your car’s suspension system gets adversely affected, expect a bumpy ride. The suspension system is made to make your journey smoother. Hitting potholes harder often means that the shock absorption mechanism gets damaged, so please be careful.

4. Difficulty steering: If you can’t control you car when making turns or even simply going straight ahead, could mean that you have issues with your steering wheel.

If you can’t control your car, you’ve got a problem

5. Problems down under: If there is a scratch on the bottom of your vehicle, it may not be a big deal for some people. However, you ought to take a look underneath to ensure that the undercarriage is OK.

6. Call your motor insurance company: If you have a motor insurance policy with HNB General Insurance, you may be eligible for a payment to cover repair costs. To find out more, call our HNB General Insurance hotline on 0114-883-883.

Liked this article? If you did, share & subscribe for more great content. See you next week!

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Disclaimer: The views shared in this blog are based on the macro economic conditions & industry status quo as per the time of publishing.

5 Ways to get the most of your Motor Insurance Policy

A lot of people ask us how to get the maximum from their motor insurance policy. We put that question to our people and got some interesting insights. Here are 5 ways to get started.

terms & conditions, motor insurance policy, vehicle insurance policy
Go through the details of the policy, its important you understand the policy which YOU pay for

1. Read and be aware of your motor insurance policy conditions:

Yes, we get it. Sometimes, the terms & conditions of the policy are very complicated. However, its necessary to understand them before you sign. You ought to know about the insurance policy which you are paying for. If there are any areas of your insurance policy which you aren’t sure of, contact us-it could help you understand what aspects your insurance policy covers and save you money in the process.

Eg: If your vehicle is 10 years old, your claim could come down by a figure of upto Rs. 10,000.

2. Follow the Steps of the Insurance Claim Process

A lot of customers believe that once an insurance policy is purchased, say on April 2nd 2015, the policy is ‘locked in’ until the end of the agreement. This is simply untrue. However, it becomes necessary for customers to be a little proactive.

For example, if you wanted to replace a new pair of speakers for your vehicle (due to an accident claim), then you ought to produce a price quote to us before buying parts. This ensures that you are not getting ripped off as a customer when purchasing a new device, and also keeps us, the insurer informed about every aspect of your vehicle.

speaker, extras, additional vehicle coverage
At least check and see if you can get this insured?

3. Understand the market value of your vehicle

The Sri Lankan vehicle market changes constantly, meaning that you as customers need to be aware of the latest developments: for example, in July 2014 a hybrid would cost around Rs. 3million, but after the recent introduction of the mini budget by the new government, the new import taxes mean that the vehicle is now valued higher. As a policyholder, it is highly recommended that you contact us and ensure that your vehicle is secured for its appropriate market value

4. Keep your vehicle well maintained

It’s been said before, but please do ensure that your vehicle is well maintained. A key point of insurance is indemnity; this is where we bring the policy holder back to the original state before a motor vehicle accident. You don’t want to be the customer who has a poorly maintained vehicle with worn out brake pads. This is because the insurance firm will need to approve for new brake pads and then YOU (the policyholder), will need to bear the excess cost as you had not maintained your vehicle properly. To get a rough guide about how to maintain your vehicle, click on the picture below:

Auto Mechanic at work
Click on me to get vehicle maintenance tips!

5. Read your Warranty

Ensure that you are aware of your warranty statement. Depending on the amount of coverage which you choose, certain technical failures may not be covered under your insurance policy. However, if your vehicle is still under warranty, the technical issue could be addressed directly with the dealer of the vehicle.

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Disclaimer: The views shared in this blog are based on the macro economic conditions & industry status quo as per the time of publishing.

The Dirty Dozen: The 12 Worst Sri Lankan Driving Habits

Sri Lanka is notorious for its poor driving. Given the fact that we encounter a high level of road rage, it seemed appropriate that we list out the worst driving habits of our fellow Sri Lankan drivers:

1. Going too slowly…on the highway: Yes, we have highways and that is excellent. However, there are a number of individuals who go too slow-say travelling at 50kmph when the speed is as high as 100kmph. If you are one of those who goes too slowly, move towards the left lane. 

slow lane

2. Driving on the wrong lane: Speaking of lanes, there are too many vehicles which I encounter which travel on the wrong lane. If you are one of them, hear this: The left lane is for slower drivers, while the right lane is for those who want to go faster.

3. Disrespecting road rules: A classic example is disregarding the pedestrian crossing. A lot of drivers don’t stop as they are supposed to. Yes, the drivers will respond saying that pedestrians usually ‘jump from nowhere’, but they are allowed to cross the road using the pedestrian crossing. So be aware.

4. Using Mobiles & driving: As we have mentioned earlier, this is very dangerous, since a moment’s distraction is all that’s necessary in order to cause a collision. If you must take or receive an important call, move your car to the side and take the call.

phone while driving

5. Using the wrong turn signal: One of the most basic things to do, and yet you’ve likely come upon this scenario: drivers who are about to turn left, have their indicators lit up in the other direction (even when they can’t turn right!). While this may be quite amusing to some, it slows down the vehicle behind as it creates uncertainty, because the driver up front seemingly doesn’t appear to know what they are doing.

6. Drifting in and out of lanes: Probably the most annoying on the list. Some drivers cant seem to decide on which lane they want to stay on, and frequently keep changing lanes by swerving to the left or the right. This makes it difficult sometimes as motorists want to drive normally and shouldn’t have to worry about getting involved in a side on collision.

7. Reversing onto the main road: If you’ve ever had to park in a shop or restaurant which is on the main road, you know nerve-wracking this feels. You need to reverse and manoeuvre carefully as you do your best to avoid hitting another car, or pedestrian.

8. Inconvenient parking: You need to park somewhere quickly, unfortunately the closest parking spot has been taken in a very poor fashion (see pic below). If this is you, breathe.  We’ve all been there at least once. Please learn how to park in a convenient place and it’ll help everyone.poor parking

9. Too many people in a vehicle: This is more likely to happen if the vehicle is a three-wheeler/tuk tuk or a motorcycle. I understand that people want to save the cost of transportation, but surely that shouldn’t be at the expense of someone’s life?

10. Large vehicles on narrow roads: Narrow ‘side’ roads are frequently used as shortcuts by a number of drivers. However, the moment a large vehicle such as a bus, truck or even a car comes along, there is no way a second vehicle can go through.

no helmets

11. No helmets: This one is for all the motorcyclists who don’t use helmets: it’s a terrible idea. You are risking serious injury if you don’t have one on you and a road accident were to happen. Furthermore, there are children who travel without a helmet: Surely if you are a responsible parent,  keeping your children safe should be a priority.

12. Driving through yellow lights: Rarely a day hour goes by when this does not happen. All types of motorists seem to view the yellow light as ‘go’ and jam their foot on the accelerator. It’s not a safe thing to do, and even though it may cost you a little time in traffic, it’s better to get there late than to not get there at all.

12. Large vehicles on narrow roads: Narrow ‘side’ roads are frequently used as shortcuts by a number of drivers. However, the moment a large vehicle such as a bus, truck or even a car comes along, there is no way a second vehicle can go through.

And there you have it, the 12 worst driving habits of Sri Lankans. Which is the worst of them all? Tell us in the comments!

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Disclaimer: The views shared in this blog are based on the macro economic conditions & industry status quo as per the time of publishing.

6 Easy Ways to Protect Your Car and its Valuables from Theft

Your vehicle is your primary mode of transportation and depending on who you are, may be a significant source of pride in  your life. How terrible would it be to lose your dream vehicle? It can happen in a moment, so be careful. To avoid car theft, use the following common sense steps to keep your vehicle as well as your valuables safe and secure

  • If you are parking, ensure that you park your vehicle in an area which is well-lit, or near a busy area, such as near the entrance/exit of a shop where there are people nearby
  • Lock your doors and windows, even if it’s for a short while
  • Keep your  keys on you at all times. Especially if you are running out to the ATM or grab a quick bite to eat
Protecting your Vehicle & Your Valuables is Easier than you think
  • Keep valuable items away from prying eyes: Simple enough. If someone sees a laptop, phone’s, camera’s, credit cards or other valuable items in your car unattended, they may be interested in stealing it.
  • Go with your gut: If something looks amiss, such as the location or the people nearby: don’t park your vehicle. Never confront anybody since its not worth it. If you are genuinely concerned about yourself/someone else, stay in your car and call the police.
  • If you haven’t got one already, consider purchasing a car alarm/ security device for your vehicle

Whats the best advice you’d suggest if you want to protect your vehicle and the objects inside? Tell us in the comments!

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Disclaimer: The views shared in this blog are based on the macro economic conditions & industry status quo as per the time of publishing.

8 Ways to Drive in Wet Weather

December usually heralds the season of Christmas trees, families spending time together, numerous parties and last-minute dashes to buy presents. However, it also rains during this particular month. As a result, the roads in Sri Lanka become even more dangerous than they usually are. Nobody wants to get involved in a motor accident, so here are some tips to get to your destination safely.

1. Lights on… to a point: Using your lights allow drivers to increase visibility, and make you more visible to other motorists. Sometimes, you may need to use fog lights as per the situation. Use your best judgement, but please don’t put your lights too high, as it is a significant distraction to other drivers, and is a very dangerous thing to do as the driver may lose sight for a moment and lose control.

2. Pay attention: This means no phones or other distractions. Driving in Sri Lanka is hard enough, but with rain affected roads, the margin of error is even smaller. Make sure that you pay close attention to your surroundings and drive safe.

steering and drive carefully during wet weather
Image Credit: Bigotires

3. Slow and Steady: It’s normal that you want to get your destination quickly, but it’s always better to get there a little late than to not get there at all. On wet roads, make sure you put more braking distance as you need plenty of time to react to the slippery conditions. Besides, slow and steady always wins the race.

4. Use a light touch: Irrespective of whether you are making a turn, steering or hitting the brakes, make sure that you make controlled movements. If your driving is steady, your vehicle will also be steady.

5. To the Left, to the left: Since you’re driving slow (see Tip 3), move to far left and allow other vehicles to overtake you. Its annoying to have drivers who don’t know how to use lanes properly, much more so during slippery driving conditions.

hydroplaning, driving in floods, driving in rain, driving in wet weather
Image credit: Roaddriver

6. Beware of water: Seems obvious, but avoid water whenever you can. Driving through water can harm your engine and brakes. A good rule of thumb to observe: if the water level is higher than the bottom of your doors, don’t drive through. Worst case scenario, you may need to take another route, but that’s always better than having your vehicle get stuck as it pours outside.

7. Demist the front and back windscreen: It’s very simple, use your heater so that you have maximum visibility when you are on slippery roads.

8. If possible, leave more time for your journey: This will allow you to relax and drive slower, while allowing you to take account for potential traffic jams.

Any tips you would like to add to our list? Tell us in the comments section!

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Disclaimer: The views shared in this blog are based on the macro economic conditions & industry status quo as per the time of publishing.

HOW TO: Buy a Vehicle. Step1- Assess Your Needs

So you’ve decided to purchase a vehicle, congratulations. If you’re stuck on how to proceed, not to worry. We’re here to help. Take a look at these factors which will help decide your future automobile.


vehicle price, automobile price, car price
Image Credit: Automedia

First things first, focus on what you need and not what you want. For example, many drivers would love to have an expensive automobile such as a Ferrari, but that’s not what you need. Look at your finances realistically, as it will dictate what you can buy. Make an allowance for automobile insurance, vehicle servicing, registration and taxes as well.

Vehicle Size

If you have more than 3 or 4 people who will be using the car, its time you looked into a bigger vehicle. Otherwise, look into a smaller automobile. These are a lot cheaper and are very reliable. In addition, newer small vehicles provide excellent protection in the event of a crash. Furthermore, unless you plan to drive long distances off road, purchasing a 4WD is quite unnecessary, as you would be better off hiring it when you need to.

Automatic or Manual

stick gear shift, manual gear shift, automatic gear, manual gear
Image Credit:Youthvillage

This one could be based on your preference, but it actually come down to your license. Yes, an automatic is a lot easier to use than a manual, but make sure that your license says that you are allowed to drive one.

Used or New

This depends a lot on your preference as there are pros and cons for both. Buying a brand new automobile means that you will have more peace of mind as you purchase directly from a dealer, however you may be able to find a bargain buy if you were to purchase your automobile from a private seller if you look hard enough.

Fuel type

This is a tricky option here. As mentioned earlier, Sri Lankans are buying greener vehicles. Look at what matters to you: Using petrol is a cheaper option, but if you wish to make an eco-friendly purchase, you could look into a hybrid vehicle as well.

Next time we will make suggestions on how you can get information about your dream car. In the meantime, share your thoughts: what type of automobile do you really need?

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Disclaimer: The views shared in this blog are based on the macro economic conditions & industry status quo as per the time of publishing.

Get a Motor Insurance Quote via SMS in 3 Steps

Motor Insurance.

This is usually the first thought by any vehicle owner. If you are a parent, this would be the first thing you would mention to your son/daughter who decides to get a car: ‘Make sure you have motor insurance!’. That being said, some of us have no idea about the cost of motor insurance. If this is you, and  you want a more convenient method to get a quote, we have one! You can get a quote from HNB Assurance via SMS in 3 steps:

 Step 1: Text MQR to 0720 200 200 (Standard SMS Charges Apply)


Step 2: Select from the options provided

As you can see, its a lot of information.

First Photo-pick your Vehicle type, usage and value

It doesn’t stop there. Here is the second part of the message:

photo 2Step 3: Text us for your premium

Thankfully, the SMS prompts give you an example on how you should respond. Lets say you have a car (1-vehicle type), which you intend to use for yourself (A-private usage), plan to purchase MotorGuard (M-product) and have your car valued at Rs. 2,000,000/-, send your text in the following manner (see below), and the premium will follow.

ONE more

And there you have it! An obligation free motor insurance quote directly to your mobile in 3 simple steps.

Found this useful? Subscribe to our blog for more helpful tips and tricks!

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Disclaimer: The views shared in this blog are based on the macro economic conditions & industry status quo as per the time of publishing.

Road Rage in Sri Lanka: Are You at Risk?

Road accidents in Sri Lanka are a daily occurrence, with numerous cases being highlighted in the news. In large cities such as Colombo and Kandy, accidents are far more common due to the large numbers of varied transportation options (three wheelers, trucks, automobiles, buses etc) and due to more narrower, sometimes overcrowded roads.

road rage

The Ministry of Transport estimated the total vehicle population to be at 5million (see above) as of 2013. The most recent case of an accident highlighted in the news (at the time of writing) involves two buses colliding on the Southern expressway.

In the HNB Assurance call centre alone, this year we have been at our busiest on Fridays, Saturdays and Mondays, with an average of 60 motor claims per day, an increase from 2013 where the corresponding number was 50. Furthermore, our data reveals that in the last two years an overwhelming majority of these claims (98%) are road accidents, with theft of parts and flooding a distant second.

Attempts have been made to identify the causes of these accidents. Dr. Godakumbura singles out young drivers suggesting that they are more likely to drive faster, use their mobile phones when driving, more likely to drive late at night and are more likely to feel the effects of alcohol than older drivers. He adds that motorcyclists and three wheel drivers are highly involved in road accidents. This view is supported by Dissanayake  and the Ministry of Transport.  Dissanayake reveals that a large number of motorcyclists  travel without using a helmet, which is a leading cause of injury. Authors such as Fazlulhaq report that upto 60% of grievous injuries and fatal accidents are caused by a combination of high speed and driver fatigue.

driver fatigue

The economic impact of road accidents has been documented and the results are that families suffer heavily as their primary breadwinner (often a male) is badly injured or even killed due to road accidents, and just 14% of these families possess life insurance in order to protect themselves from such tragedies. In fact, certain reports suggest that road accidents cost Sri Lanka over Rs 9.3billion annually.

Which brings us to you, dear reader. Are you at risk? Take a moment to consider about how you drive; do you exceed the speeding limit? Do you race other cars on the roads and overtake dangerously? Chances are some of you who are reading this article have had first or second hand experience with an automobile accident. We kindly request you, whether motorist or pedestrian, to follow these tips the next time you travel:

  • Don’t drive if you are tired. Rest or have someone else drive you.
  • Be mindful of your surroundings, all it takes is for someone to make one small mistake which can have a large impact on your life.
  • Drive slower. Its better to get there late than not get there at all. If you must be somewhere on time, leave earlier to beat the traffic.
  • Do not use your phones while you drive/cross, your attention must on the road at all times.
  • Wear your seatbelt. Not only is it the law, but it could save your life in case the unexpected happens.
  • Don’t drink and drive.  Ever. If you take the wheel under the influence of alcohol you are taking your life, and the life of others into your own, unsteady hands.
  • If you haven’t already, look into motor insurance and life insurance to safeguard you and your family against the unexpected.

Do you have any more tips on road safety? Tell us in the comments and subscribe for more road safety tips.

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Disclaimer: The views shared in this blog are based on the macro economic conditions & industry status quo as per the time of publishing. 


The Ministry of Transport Sri Lanka, Statistics, Department of Motor Traffic: Vehicle Population.

The Ministry of Transport Sri Lanka, Statistics, National Council for Road Safety: Vehicle Accidents.

7 Tips to Make Your Vehicle Run Longer

Want information about extending the life of your vehicle? Look no further, we have compiled a list to assist you in maintaining your automobile and helping it perform at its peak for longer.

1) Tyre Pressure

Monitor your tyre pressure on a regular basis, especially when driving on uneven roads inundated with pot holes. In addition, warm weather causes tyres to lose air at a faster rate. Monitoring your tyre pressure becomes vital as it will ensure you have a stable ride, and results in fewer blowouts. Furthermore, different vehicles have different tyre pressures, so make sure you consult your owner’s manual as ‘one pressure does not fit all’  in this case.

2) Engine Oil

This should probably should be the first on this list, changing engine oil on a regular basis arguably contributes to a high performing engine. Periodic oil changes, specified by the vehicle manufacturer ensures that your engine has a longer lifespan.

3) Wheel alignment

It may seem like common sense, but aligning wheels is something a lot of drivers forget to do. Aligning the wheels correctly leads to a smoother ride, maximizes fuel efficiency and causes minimal waste to your tyres, meaning you have a longer tyre lifespan.

Auto Mechanic at work. Image credit:  http://professionalexhaust.com.au

4) Engine and Battery

The engine is the heart of any vehicle. Keeping good care of it ensures that your vehicle has a longer life-cycle. Take engine maintenance and repairs very seriously by taking it to a trusted dealer of your choice. Like a good partnership, a strong engine works in sync with a reliable battery, which also needs regular maintenance (ie: regular cleaning of terminals, topping up the cells and maintaining the recommended PH value for optimum performance).

5) Brakes

In recent years, Toyota have had to recall their vehicles due to faulty breaks. We advise you to regularly check your brakes as it presents a major safety hazard. Look into the wear and tear of the brake pads/shoes as well as the braking mechanism to ensure that your vehicle stops when you need it to.

6) A/C repair

For those who travel in hot, humid conditions such as in Sri Lanka, the A/C breaking down can be  major nightmare. In addition, refrigerant leaks from the A/C unit and can harm the environment and cause possible damage to your compressor and evaporator. Regularly maintaining your air conditioning unit, such as cleaning the air filter will ensure you have a more comfortable ride.

Businesswoman driving in an air conditioned vehicle

7) Interior cleaning: Odor and Dirt Removal

Let us be honest: nobody likes a dirty automobile. If you smoke, have small children and/or pets, there is a much higher likelihood that your vehicle will be a lot messier than the average user. Make it a point to keep your interior clean by vacuuming and cleaning away the dust, dirt, stains and impurities from the seats, carpets and the upholstery.

What are your vehicle maintenance tips? Tell us in the comments!

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Disclaimer: The views shared in this blog are based on the macro economic conditions & industry status quo as per the time of publishing.


Tabuchi,H 2010, Toyota is to Recall 2010 Prius Model Cars for Brakes, The New York Times 7 February. [Accessed 25th August 2014].

Toyota says to recall 242,000 vehicles for brake glitch, Reuters, 5 June  2013. [Accessed 27th August 2014].